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The 12 Leads of Christmas: aVF

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This article is the fifth in our latest series, The 12 Leads of Christmas, where each day we examine a new finding particular to an individual electrocardiographic lead. Lead aVF I dug myself quite a hole on this one as there’s really not much to say about aVF. It’s located midway between leads II and […]

The 12 Leads of Christmas: aVL

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This article is the fourth in our latest series, The 12 Leads of Christmas, where each day we examine a new finding particular to an individual electrocardiographic lead. Lead aVL Today’s  review is going to be light on text (but heavy on EKG’s) to make time for Wednesday’s big post on aVR. It also helps that […]

The 12 Leads of Christmas: Lead III

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This article is the third in our latest series, The 12 Leads of Christmas, where each day we examine a new finding particular to an individual electrocardiographic lead. Lead III Lead III is great at identifying STEMI’s. In patients presenting with signs and symptoms concerning for ACS but no clear ischemia on the initial ECG, it’s […]

The 12 Leads of Christmas: Lead II

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This article is the second in our latest series, The 12 Leads of Christmas, where each day we examine a new finding particular to an individual electrocardiographic lead. The Lead II Sign Yesterday, we covered the lead I sign, so it’s only fitting that we discuss the lead II sign today.   It’s a commonly […]

The 12 Leads of Christmas: Lead I

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This article is the first in our latest series, The 12 Leads of Christmas, where each day we examine a new finding particular to an individual electrocardiographic lead. The Lead I Sign This patient has COPD.   So does this patient.   Also, this patient.   How do I know that? Well, I met the patients […]

Conclusion to Snapshot Case: 85 Year Old Male With Chest Pain

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This is the conclusion to the Snapshot Case from a couple of days ago. If you haven’t already done so, I suggest reviewing the very brief initial case description. Here again is the EKG from Tuesday’s case. This tracing is nearly pathognomonic for true occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA), resulting in a […]

Snapshot Case: 85 Year Old Male With Chest Pain

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Snapshot cases are EKG’s where we do not have good patient follow-up or sometimes even clinical information but still feel there are worthwhile learning points to convey. This is an old case we’ve actually featured on the blog before, but today we’re going to do so with a different focus. This ECG is from an […]

The 360 Degree Heart – Part II

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The first post in our “360 Degree Heart” series attempted to visualize how the different frontal plane (limb) leads relate to one another. We also introduced the concept of “negative leads,” which are just the standard leads flipped upside down. If you didn’t read that post it would probably be helpful to start there. This […]

The 360 Degree Heart – Part I

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The hexaxial reference system. If I asked you to imagine how the limb leads “look” at the heart you would probably picture something like the image below: Notice those gaps in the limb leads? They don’t really exist; they’re an illusion. This isn’t something that is commonly emphasized when the cardiac axis is being taught […]

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